After 1860, Europeans and Americans came to accept card indices, markings on the faces that declared their values. Early indices included:
- triplicates, when the standard card face bears miniature faces in two corners
- border indices, when numerals and suit signs line the edges of the card
- numerals inscribed within the suit signs
- large numerals dominating the card face
The most popular indices proved to be the small markings in diagonally opposite corners, or, less frequently, in all four corners.