The formation of the Playing-Card Society is a venture in its earliest stages, a time which must expose the organization's potential as well as the pitfalls which may lie ahead. This initial issue is being published with a blend of hope and trepidation. Although indulgence must be asked concerning unintended errors and weaknesses, much more important is our aim to interest readers sufficiently so that they will co-operate in making future issues a success.
The principal aim of the Society is to promote the serious study of the history of playing-cards, both ancient and modern. Happily our Society, though still a relatively small one, is an international one. This, however, immediately presents problems in continuity of communication. That is why this Journal, which it is hoped will be a quarterly publication and multilingual, will be of such importance in the exchange of information and co-operation in projects for research.
As well as articles on specialized subjects, the Editor would welcome news of articles contained in other publications, books, exhibits, etc., which would certainly be of interest to fellow members. (As an example, it should be [end of page 1] noted here that an article by a founder member of the Society, Evelyn Goshawk, entitled "Royal Finery on Playing Cards" appeared in the issue of 30th March, 1972 of the British magazine "Country Life".) Book reviews would be welcomed; and if any member would like discussion of any aspect of our hobby, would he or she please make use of our correspondence columns.
This issue includes an introductory article to a series of scholarly studies of the cards published by the London bookseller John Lenthall in the early 18th century written by Harold and Virginia Wayland, the quality of whose work is known to many members who have seen or acquired their publications. There is also a study of an Austrian pack of the second half of the 19th century which changed with the times by Fred Taylor who is an expert on the cards and the tax stamps of the territories once comprising Austria-Hungary. An account is given of a sale of a remarkable collection of playing-cards at Christie's last November.
The first letter received for our correspondence column contains a request that the Society should as soon as possible embark upon a project of great importance to the ease of communication between both historians and collectors of playing-cards: that is a definitive terminology. This is, in fact, a subject which will be discussed at the Society's inaugural meeting at Norwich in September. Two British speakers there will be offering their opinions on the subject and one paper has been offered by a member from the United States who cannot be present: it is hoped that as many members as possible will join in this discussion, either personally or by post. Ultimately a consensus will be published.
It has already been noted that the official inaugural meeting of the Society takes place in September when the Society will become formally established. The Committee would like to take this opportunity of thanking the founder [end of page 2] members and all those who have joined since the time of the Kendal Convention for their faith in the Society's declared aims and for providing the encouragement and finance for the foundation of what it is hoped and believed will become an increasingly flourishing and useful Society.
A high proportion of members, although by no means all, have written that their principal interest lies in the collection or study of what might be termed standard cards; that is to say, cards intended primarily for play and whose design often follows some local regional pattern. It is hoped to cater for this interest in futurer issues, but it would be of great help if members could supply further specific queries, and also information concerning cards of any region which they feel may not generally be known.
The best known of all early advertisements of playing-cards is a broadside entitled "For the improvement of Gentlemen. Ladies, and others, in several Arts and Sciences, as well as the agreeable Diversion of CARD-PLAYING, there are Published Forty entertaining Packs of Cards curiously engraven on Copper Plates. Sold byr J. Lenthall, Stationer, at the Talbot against St. Dunstan'sr Church in Fleet-street London. The only known copy ofr this broadside is in the Department of Prints and Drawings, [end of page 3] the British Museum (No. V249.3) and was given to the British Museum by a General Meyrick in 1878, along with cards from the Douce collection. It is reproduced as plate 76A in Volume I of PLAYING CARDS by Lady Charlotte Schreiber. This broadside represents the most complete listing of the fascinating educational and pastime cards of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. This group of cards furnishes an important mirror of the customs and culture of the period, so we have undertaken a series of articles discussing the twenty-four English packs appearing on the Lenthall list.
Although many of the packs in this list are reproduced in Lady Charlotte's magnificent work, as well as a more complete list with brief descriptions of the packs appearing in O'Donoghue's catalogue of her collection, a good deal has been learned concerning such cards since these earlier publications. We plan to bring together the best information we can find on each pack, and to list the whereabouts of all packs or partial packs known to us. We should deeply appreciate any information our readers can supply: material new to us which is made available at a sufficiently early date will be incorporated in our articles with due credit to the source. Important information which arrives after publication will be included in a supplement to the series.
There is no publication date on the broadside. Lady Charlotte Schreiber points out that it must have been published after Queen Anne's death in 1714, since item XXI refers to "her late Majesty Queen Anne". The suggested later date of 1720, however, is uncertain: Lady Charlotte deduces this from the fact that the Bubble cards, which were issued in 1720, are not mentioned, but we have found no evidence that Lenthall ever sold the Bubble cards. There is better evidence that the broadside was issued [end of page 4] between 1716 and 1718: item XIX advertises the "Frost-Fair cards, being a Description of the several Trades in Booths, exercised on the River Thames, during the late memorable Frost." A strike from a worn plate of an early engraving issued by William Warter shows the drawing divided into card-size rectangles, with a re-engraved text in the cartouche alluding to the Frost Fair held during the reign of George I in 1716. It seems highly probable that the Frost Fair cards alluded to in this advertisement are commemorating this particular event. It is impossible to determine exactly the meaning of the phrase "late memorable Frost", but we feel on relatively safe ground in dating the broadside between 1716 and 1718.
(Editor's note: several years later the Waylands were to revise their opinion and at present - 1980 - believe 1723 or 1724 to be nearer to the date of the broadside. See Journal Vol. VI No. 1)
Taylor (p. 209) claimed that John Lenthall was active as a stationer, in the location given in the broadside, between 1665 and 1685, and this information has been passed down by Willshire, Lady Charlotte Schreiber and others. Taylor also claimed that John Lenthall liked to imply that he was related to William Lenthall who was Speaker of the House of Commons during Cromwell's Commonwealth. Unfortunately for Taylor's record of veracity, but fortunately for the clarification of the chronology of various issues of educational and pastime cards of the period, there seems to be no truth whatsoever in Taylor's assertions.
The John Lenthall of the famous list was the son of one Thomas Lenthall, Gentleman, of the Parish of Hornchurch in the County of Essex. We have been unable so far to explore Essex in order to seek out his [end of page 5] birth record, and we hope that some member of the Playing-Card Society will be able to do so. We have uncovered the fact that there was a Thomas Lenthall from this area who was born in 1613, who seems more likely to be John's grandfather than his father. This particular Thomas was university-educated, and it is possible that John missed a similar opportunity because of the untimely death of his father, since in the records in Stationers' Hall, in the book of "Apprentices Bound, Turned Over, Free and Cloathed" for the period 1640-1748 we find the record that John Lenthall, son of Thomas Lenthall, deceased, was, on 4th September, 1699, bound to William Warter for seven years. He was admitted as a Freeman of the Stationers' Company on 5th September, 1706 (some records give the date of 9th September) and was clothed (that is, made a Liveryman) on 7th April, 1712. (Enthusiasts for Women's Lib will be interested to note that a feilow apprentice was one Sarah Marshall).
Lenthall's master, William Warter, had his stationer's shop at the "Signe of the Talbott, over against Fetter Lane End of Fleet Street, London" at least as early as 1682. He had been bound apprentice to Richard Marriot in 1668, made a freeman in 1675, and a Liverman in 1682. He is directly associated with the production of three packs of cards, numbers XV, XVI and XIX on the Lenthall list. Number XVI, the Proverb Cards, were first issued on 23rd November, 1698, nearly a year before John Lenthall became apprenticed to him.
John Lenthall must have proved an enterprising and valuable employee. Only two years after completing his apprenticeship we find him listed as a partner of Warter's in an advertisement in the "British Apollo" for 12-17th November, 1708. They were continuing the business at the same location and under the same sign of the Talbot (a hound) that Warter had been using for several decades. [end of page 6] Whether Lenthall had inherited money which enabled him to buy himself into the business, or whether the ageing Warter had no one else to whom to turn over the business, we do not know. We have no firm evidence of Warter's retirement or death, but Henry R. Plomer in his DICTIONARY OF THE BOOKSELLERS...1668-1715 indicates that he was no longer active in the business after 1709.
Warter may have stimulated Lenthall's interest in educational and pastime cards with the Arithmetical, Proverb and Frost Fair cards which he had issued. We have no certain evidence that Lenthall issued any of the cards mentioned on the broadside ab initio. In fact, the only pack we cannot attribute to another originator is Number X, Cooking and Pastry Cards. He gathered up the plates and the rights to reproduce a large group of these cards which had been issued over the previous thirty to forty years. He seems to have avoided political cards, perhaps because he felt they were too dated. He does list the cards depicting events in the reign of Queen Anne, but these appear on his list (Number XXI) simply as Royal Cards. This was almost the last of a considerable series of political cards, and was probably considered still to be a timely item since Queen Anne had been dead only a very few years.
Lenthall appears to have used some plates engraved by their originators: this may have depended on how worn they were when they came into his possession. His own issues were often distinguished by a characteristic decorative border. We feel that this was sometimes engraved on to original plates, but in other instances the evidence points to a completely new engraving, although carefully following the earlier design. Careful examination of existing examples of various editions can often clarify this question. Whenever we have been able to make such comparison, we will share our deductions with our [end of page 7] readers, and we will appreciate correspondence with those who have been able to make similar studies.
On the 24th November, 1971, under the description given above, there took place at Christie's in London the sale of what must be considered one of the most remarkable collections of playing-cards ever to come on the open market. The property of the late Captain H. E. Rimington Wilson, the collection cannot have exceeded one hundred packs, but almost every one was of the highest quality or interest, and many, so far as the present writer is aware, were previously unrecorded.
For the benefit of members of the Society who were not present at the sale, an account of the lots on offer may prove of interest and value. Card games on offer have not been described which explains the apparent gaps in the numbering of lots. Lots 1-276 were part of a book sale.
277. English Alphabetical cards of c1700. Not, as the catalogue suggested, illustrated in Hargrave, although some of the cards are shown in Morley, pp. 143-4. Probable Lenthall's number XX, each card either demonstrates a letter of the alphabet written in different fashions or bears a moral precept. This example was cut from a sheet before the suitmarks were added.
280. "Das Astronomische Kartenspiel". With German suitmarks. By Endters & Seel of Nuremberg, 1674 edition. I can find no other record of an edition of this date. Each card depicts a constellation and has a typeset description.
281. "Neu Inventirtes Belehrendes und ergötzendes [end of page 8] Astronomisches Kartenspiel" by Johann Philipp Andreas of Nuremberg, 1719. Similar format to last but captions appear to be engraved. See Hargrave, facing p. 108. This fetched 250 gns.
284. A complete pack of "All the Bubbles" cards, made in London in c1720.
285. An extremely interesting and, to me, previously unknown pack with fanciful suitmarks (Cupids, Goats, Harps and Millstones) made in 1544 by Christian Wechel of Paris, whose name is recorded in d'Allemagne as a maître cartier. The main body of the cards was filled with quotations in Latin from the works of Ovid, Seneca, Horace and Plautus. Not surprisingly this exceptional item fetched a high price (320 gns.)
286. 44 cards from the French transformation pack of c1819, with allegorical illustrations of reationary newspapers of the period on the court cards; also 32 cards from the associated pack with contemporary theatres the subject of the court cards.
288. A German-suited, 52-card pack illustrating the skills and mysteries of Chiromancy or Palmistry. Probably c1670. Each card shows the picture of a hand over typeset text describing part of it. This was also new to me.
289. A pack with the same style and theme as the last, but rather more artistically presented and with verses instead of plain text. Probably from the same period. The only other example I have seen is one which belonged to the late Dr. Martin yon Hase of Wiesbaden who dated it 1660.
290. "Le Jeu de la Géographie" by Desmarests, 1644. The early edition of the pack, before suitmarks had been added. Missing one card. Also 30 cards from a French edition of the "Jeu de la Guerre". This was one of the bargains, at 20 gns.
291. The 1698 edition in book form of the four packs [end of page 9] by Desmarests - "Jeu des Fables", "Jeu de Géographle", "Jeu des Rois de France" and "Jeu des Reynes Renommées", published by Nicolas le Clerc and Florent le Comte. Worn impressions.
292. Three packs of the Mortier (Amsterdam) version of Desmarests' packs: "Géographie", "Reynes Renommées" and "Rois de France", the first two complete, the latter lacking one card. All bore the English tax stamp of c1716: John Lenthall of London included these cards in his celebrated list (XXXII, XXX and XXXIX respectively) so probably these cards were sold by that worthy.
293. Mortier's "Jeu des Hommes & Femmes Illustres", more suitably entitled Poetical and Philosophical Cards by Lenthall (XXVIII). Each card shows a bust portrait of a classical celebrity. In common with Lot 292, this pack bears sn English tax stamp.
294. Redmayne's Counties of England and Wales: the early version dating from 1676, before the decorative border had been added. Although seven cards short, this item made the relatively high price of 160 gns. Here, obviously, card collectors had to compete with map collectors.
295, 296. Parts of three copies of the "Europaeisch-Geographische Spiel-Charte" by Johann Hoffmann of Nuremberg, 1678; the cards depict maps of part of Europe. See Hargrave, p. 109.
297. Three packs of Spanish cards, one by Lopez & Co. of Barcelona having suits each representing a continent, c1870.
298. Parts of three packs engraved by J. Gole who engraved several packs sold
by Mortier of Amsterdam in the 1690s and 1700s. The first (two complete suits
only) was the "Jeu des quatre parties du Monde" (Lenthall's XXXV). The second
(one card short) was previously unknown to me and showed on the numeral cards a
series of burlesque figures and caricatures [end of page
[end of Plate I following page 10]
[end of Plate II following page 10]
(some on the coarse side); the courts showed more respectable figures, representing the four continents. There was also a single suit from Mortier's pack, misleadingly named Roman cards in Lenthall's list (XXXIII) although the numeral cards show portraits and descriptions of the kings of France. All were probably made c1700.
299. Another item previously unknown to me. A piquet pack (32 cards), inscribed in Latin and apparently giving lessons in French grammar. These instructions were contained on a central panel of each card which had a rather heavily decorated frame indicating the cards' values. From the style, the cards may have been made in some provincial centre specialising in popular art, such as Epinal, at the beginning of the 18th century.
300. 40 cards from a really beautiful French pack by the, to me, unknown Pierre Barbey in about 1650. The values of the numeral cards were indicated by a single suit-mark and numeral and the rest of the card was illustrated with the relevant number of birds, animals, flowers and vegetables according to suit. Seguin (p. 229) illustrates a similar but completely anonymous pack. On the present pack's court cards historical and legendary figures are depicted. In the same lot were the 21 atouts from a Swiss Italian-suited tarot pack by Jacque Rochias Fils of Neuchâtel, late 18th century.
301. Five French packs. Two were examples of the standard French pack dated 1816 with fieurs de lys on the Ace of Clubs, the King of Clubs' shield and the King of Hearts' robe: one had a Jack of Diamonds hand-stamped with the maker's name "Chassonneris à Paris". Two (one complete, the other comprising simply the court cards and Aces) were Revolutionary versions of the Paris pattern of c1792 with the location "Au Père du Famille,r rue Nerry No. 442", the usual signature of J. Pinaut of Paris. The final pack was a rare provincial version of [end of page 11] the Gatteaux/Davld pack of 1811.
302. This lot included a regrettably tattered part of a trappola pack by Michael Schmit of Bucholz (c1675) apparently printed on thc back of another, German-suited, pack. There was a complete (36 cards) pack of German-suited cards by F. G. Baumgärtner of Leibzig depicting the leaders of the Allies at Waterloo (1815) and a complete double-headed standard French-suited pack by J.G. Timmermann of Lübeck (1798).
304. A German pack of coats-of-arms, probably made in Nuremberg in about 1693, in the form of the cards illustrated in Hargrave (p. 111), but with typeset captions in place of engraved ones. Another edition new to me.
305. A French-language edition of Brianville's armorial cards. The arms of Pope Clement IX on the King of Clubs suggests origins in the period 1667-69, but the presence of an English tax stamp mades it probable that it was old stock sold to Lenthall by Mortier.
306. A German-language edition of Brianville's cards. Unfortunately I did not study this closely enough to check if the Papal card bore the arms of Clement IX, found on the only German edition previously known to me. The catalogue speaks of Clement VII who was Pope long before the publication of any Brianville cards.
307. A complete pack of 40 cards, made of silver, possibly 17th-century. Very Spanish in appearance, it was suggested that they were made in Italy for use in Spain. They fetched 720 gns.
310. 44 cards of a 15th-century Italian pack with fanciful suit-marks (though based on Italian ones) of Cups, Arrows, Eyes and Whips, Merlin calls this pack the "Jeu des Passions" as each suit represents a passion. Although the exact composition of the pack was not absolutely clear, each suit had four court cards (King, Queen, Cavalier and Jack) and ten numerals, all cards bearing three lines of verse. Merlin mentions the pack being [end of page 12] acquired in 1861 for 400 francs. In 1971 it made 350 gns.
311. A French-language edition of the "Jeu de Fortifications", probably made by Mortier, as it bears an English tax stamp.
312. The same, lacking 16 cards, but probably an earlier edition.
313. A French-language edition of the "Jeu de la Guerre", probably with the same history as lot 311.
315. Part of a pack of Italian-suited tarots made in Trieste in c1800, with French inscriptions. Also a complete pack (78 cards) of French-suited tarots with natural history subjects on the atouts by J.M. Backofen of Nuremberg (c1800).
316, 317. Cotta's transformation packs for 1807 and 1810.
318. Osiander's transformation pack of 1815.
319. A pack (lacking one card) of Tho. Tuttell's Mathematical Cards (c1700). Each card depicts an instrument that could be bought from Mr. Tuttell, Mathematical Instrument Maker to the King. As such, it may be the first illustrated trade catalogue made. It made 300 gns.
320, 321. The two versions of the Dutch "Mississippi Bubble" cards of 1720, one by Pasquin, the other by Momus.
322. Geographical cards of a design used in various countries (see Hargrave p. 177) but first issued in England in c1679. This edition, cut from a sheet, is much later, with a portrait of King George I on the King of Hearts. This is possibly the only complete pack known of this version.
323. Some four-suited domino cards from China,r also four-suited money cards as well as three-suited packs. A Japanese "100 Poets" pack and a bazaar-style eight-suited Indian pack. All probably 19th century. [end of page 13]
324. Eight packs of English cards, including a pack of Rowley's cards and Ludlow's Knights cards. There was a standard pack by Blanchard with the rare forged Ace of Spades for which Harding is thought to have been hanged; a piquet pack with the rare G.R. cypher tax stamp of the early 1760s; a first and second issue by De La Rue; a Hart piquet pack.
325. Several packs of standard European cards. Florentine cards by Chiari (c1850); double-headed Dutch, Belgian and German cards, including packs by Wynants of Brussels and Suhr of Hamburg. A non-standard pack from the Netherlands (c1780) which was unknown to me depicted historical and literary characters.
326. An 18th-century English pattern pack, probably made In India for Poker.
327. Two nicely hand-drawn copies of rare packs: The Revolution of 1688, and Monmouth's Rebellion.
328. 47 cards cut from a sheet of "The Arms of the Scottish Peers" pack made in Edinburgh in 1691 by Waiter Scot.
331. Some nice Spanish packs including some by Rotxotxo, Barcelona; de Castro, Madrid; Macia, Barcelona.
332. Part of a 16th-century woodcut German-suited pack by "B. M.".
333. Hand-painted, English-pattern cards made in Ceylon on bamboo. (c1830).
334. The early Rouen pattern made for export to the Low Countries and Scandinavia: a 40-card pack made by Richard Bouvier (AbbeviUe, 1782).
335. A Spanish-suited pack made by Louys Millieu. From its style and appearance it may have been made in Toulouse in the late 16th century.
336. A Swiss-suited pack by Bernard Schaer of Solothurn, 1789.
337. A French-suited tarot with natural history [end of page 14] subjects on the atouts (probably late 18th-century and German.) A standard pack of Italian-suited tarots by Jacque Rochias Fils of Neuchâtel (late 18th century); and a fanciful, Italian-suited tarot, all cards with brown background, entitled "L'Oracle des Dames" (probably 19th century).
338. The transformation cards issued in Vienna by Müller and in London by Ackermann. I did not have time to check which version this was.
339. Mortier's own "Jeu de Géographie", each card bearing a map of some part of the world. Probably c1715, with an English tax stamp.
The whole sale fetched just over 4,500gns.
Although many 19th-century card manufacturers issued packs of playing-cards that reflected contemporary events or portrayed national leaders or artists, special mention deserves to be made of the French-suited tarot decks published by the Viennese firm of Joseph Glanz. The military tarot pack I propose to discuss in this article was printed initially by Glanz around the decade of the 1850s. Subsequently it was re-issued at least twice, each time with changes that brought it up to date in terms of officer promotions as well as in one other aspect that I shall explain later.
The pack in question is discussed at some length in Melbert B. Cary's WAR CARDS (Press of the Woolly Whale, New York, 1937). On pages 43-47 we read the following: [end of page 15]
"A striking case of the utilization of the same designs on several packs of different dates is presented by the tacot packs of Joseph Glanz issued about 1850 sic... Two of these decks in my possession contain many cards that are identical, but others differ. For example, the same individual named Benedek on (tarot) number VI appears with the military abbreviation of G.M. (General Major) in one pack, while in the other he is Freih. F.M.L. (Feld Marschall Leutnant).1
"On (tarot) number XV, the caption F. M. Freih. von Hess becomes F.Z.M. (Feld Zeug Meister) Freih. von Hess, revealing his transfer to the artillery.2 Similarly with (tarot) number XVIII, where F.M.L.G. Schlick is altered to G.d.C. (General de Cavallerie) G. Schlick...
"As is clear from tarot IX - "Ein Vorposten im Winter" - these decks commemorate the unsuccessful Revolution of 1848-49, when Hungary, under Kossuth tried to throw off the yoke of Austria and was finally defeated by the Austrians with Russian assistance.
"The puzzle presented by these two decks is not lessened by a third from the same maker in which most of the cards are different, but not all. Tarot IX, for instance, carries the same picture and caption, but with the important addition of the date 1849. Tarot XVII shows the bestowal of a decoration with the caption "F.M.L. d'Aspre belohnt auf dem Schlachtfeld Einem Tapfern" which is identical with only one of the packs previously mentioned, the others3 having a quite different scene entitled "Vor Friderica"4. This was a fortified seaport in Jutland, Denmark, which was attacked by the troops of Schleswig-Holstein in 1849.
"Is there, perhaps, a fourth deck still different? [end of page 16] It may exist, for there is a reference in Hargrave5 to 'historical cards picturing kings from Rudolf to Joseph II side by side with military tarots tn which Franz Joseph and his generals appear'."
(Footnotes by F. G. T.)
The fact that Cary errs in several minor points may indicate that his packs either were incomplete or else lacked dates and tax stamps. I do not contend that the dates 1854, 1858 and 1865 - clearly stamped on my own three complete packs - are necessarily the original years of issue, nor do I state that other packs in the series may not exist. I do believe, however, that Mr. Cary was utterly confused as to which of the three packs was the earliest. Even without the important aces of Hearts, which show dates and tax stamps, the evidence obtainable from the three tarot number II cards would have been sufficient to place the packs in chronological order. In these cards we note the visible aging of Franz Joseph: first without moustache or [end of page 17] sideburns: then with a small moustache; finally with a heavy moustache and bushy sideburns. In order to make this distinction clearer I have prepared the following chart. The illustration is of tarot II from the 1865 pack. (See final page).
|II||Emperor Franz Joseph as a 24-year-old officer. Clean shaven.||Franz Joseph with small moustache||Franz Joseph with full moustache and bushy sideburns|
|III||The brave soldier returns home||Same||Same|
|V||Master of Ordnance Baron Welden||Archduke Albrecht||Field Marshal Archduke Albrecht|
|VI||Major General Benedek||Lieut. Field Marshal Baron Benedek||Master of Ordnance Baron Benedek|
|VII||Master of Ordnance Baron Jellacic||Master of Ordnance Count Jellacic||Attack at Oberselk|
|VIII||Sentry duty in Italy, Summer of 1848||Same scene but no date or mention of place||Same as 1858|
|IX||Sentry duty in Hungary, Winter of 1849||Same scene but no date or mention of place||Same as 1858|
|X||A hero's death||Same||Storming of Konigsberg|
|XII||The faithful comrade||Same||Same|
|XIII||A Balkan officer||Same||Battle of Oesersee|
|XIV||Hurrah for the life of a soldier!||Same||Same|
|XV||Master of Ordnance Baron Haynau||Master of Ordnance Baron von Hess||Field Marshal Baron von Hess [end of pages 18 and 19]|
|XVI||A dying soldier||Same||Lieut. Field Marshal Baron von Gablenz decorating the brave.|
|XVII||Lieut. Field Marshal d'Aspre decorates a valiant officer||Same||Vor Fridericia|
|XVIII||Lieut. Field Marshal G. Schlick||General of Cavalry G. Schlick||Major General Prince Württemberg|
|XIX||A Russian sentry in Hungary||Cavalry charge||Same as 1858|
|XX||Field Marshal Count Radetzky||Same||Same|
|XXI||A Cossack||An Uhlan||Same as 1858|
The court cards in all three packs are identical.
Does a fourth pack exist as Cary and Hargrave suggest? Here is a project worthy of any serious collector interested in doing research work on the history of our hobby.
A vital contribution which the Playing-Card Society can make to its members is a standardization of terminology. Because the Society is international and even within a single country few of us live close to one another we must be able to communicate by mail with optimum understanding.
This means the use of words and the occasional photocopy.
Our international nature requires an understanding of certain foreign words and phrases beyond that provided by the average dictionary. We need to be able to discuss and compare cards whether it is a question of card history, identification of a presently owned pack or exchange or [end of page 20] purchase of a new one. Society members in France and Italy, for example, should be able to have a reasonable understanding of an entry in a German catalogue without a full knowledge of that language. A multi-lingual dictionary of card terms, once agreed upon, is badly needed.
I would hope that terminology would include not only such strictly card terms (courts, trumps, suits etc.) or technical terms connected with their production, but also some standards for the use of ordinary words such as mint, unique, early, hand-made and so forth.
Trump II of Glanz's Military Tarot, from the c1865 edition, showing Franz
Josef with heavy moustache and bushy sideburns [end of Plate
following page 21]